Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing the world we live in, making it easier to solve complex problems and providing increasingly effective decision support. However, one of the main challenges related to AI is understanding the internal decision-making process, which is often perceived as a "black box." This is where Explainable AI (XAI), a branch of AI that aims to make decisions made by machines transparent and understandable, comes into play. In this article, we will explore what Explainable AI is, provide practical examples of its use, explain the principles and methods behind this technology, and analyze future developments.

What is eXplainable AI?

eXplainable AI (XAI), or Explainable Artificial Intelligence, is a set of techniques and methods for explaining and interpreting decisions made by artificial intelligence models. The main goal of XAI is to make machine decision making transparent, enabling users to understand the "why" behind the choices made and to evaluate the correctness and reliability of the results by creating machine learning models that are clear, reliable and easy to interpret.

One of the main motivations behind the development of eXplainable AI is the need to address ethical, legal and social concerns related to the use ofartificial intelligence.
Transparency, accountability and justice are key elements in ensuring ethical and fair use of AI in various fields, such as medicine, finance and justice.

Why is eXplainable AI important?

eXplainable AI is important because it can help improve the average user's confidence in AI. In many cases, people are unable to understand how decisions are made by algorithms, which can lead to a lack of confidence in the concept of artificial intelligence itself. Many of the machine learning techniques, particularly deep neural networks, are often considered the classic "Black Box" because of their complexity and difficulty in interpretation. In this context, eXplainable AI (XAI) emerges as a branch of artificial intelligence that focuses on creating AI models that are understandable and interpretable.

Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with developing algorithms and models that allow computers to learn from data without being explicitly programmed. In other words, machine learning enables computers to autonomously improve their performance by analyzing data and finding meaningful patterns and relationships among them.

How does eXplainable AI work?

Explainable Artificial Intelligence uses a variety of techniques and algorithms to create machine learning models that are easily understood. These include data visualization techniques, AI explanation algorithms, and AI interpretation techniques. These tools enable users to understand how AI makes decisions, what factors influence those decisions, and how machine learning models can be improved.

eXplainable AI relies on several principles and methods to make the decisions of artificial intelligence models understandable. Some of these principles and methods include:

  • Transparency: Transparency is a fundamental principle of XAI. It is about making the AI model understandable and "crystal clear" to the user, so that he or she can understand how the algorithm made a certain decision or reached a certain conclusion. This can be done through the use of visualization or natural language techniques.
  • Interpretability: Interpretability is another important principle of XAI, so that the user can understand the meaning of the information the model provides. Satisfactory results require the use of explanation techniques that translate the data into a user-understandable format.
  • Controllability: Controllability is a principle that aims to give the user the ability to intervene and modify the AI model. This can be done through the use of interaction techniques, which allow the user to change the parameters of the model and influence its decisions.
  • Validity: Validity ensures that the AI model produces valid and reliable results. This means that the model must be trained on quality data and must be tested on a large dataset to verify its accuracy.

Practical Examples of Using eXplainable AI

How then can the application of the principles of Explainable Artificial Intelligence to everyday life prove indispensable and in what fields is it most useful?

  • Medicine: In the field of medical diagnosis, AI can help identify diseases and conditions based on medical images, such as X-rays or MRIs. However, physicians need to be able to understand why AI has made a particular diagnosis in order to evaluate and discuss it with patients. The eXplainable AI can provide visual or textual explanations that clarify the model's reasoning, such as indicating that it has identified the presence of certain symptoms or signs.
  • Finance: In credit evaluation processes, AI can be used to analyze a wide range of data and predict an applicant's probability of default. However, financial institutions must ensure that decisions are made in a fair and non-discriminatory manner. The eXplainable AI can show which variables most influenced the decision and whether these are based on objective criteria and in accordance with laws and regulations.
  • Justice: AI can be used to predict an individual's risk of reoffending and support justice agencies in making release decisions or determining sentences. In this context, it is critical that decisions are fair and not influenced by bias. The eXplainable AI can provide detailed explanations of the reasons behind a given risk assessment, enabling judges to understand and assess the reliability of predictions.

Future Developments of eXplainable AI

eXplainable AI is a rapidly evolving field and is expected towill continue to grow and develop in the future. Despite the advantages of XAI, there are still several challenges to be faced. For example, creating machine learning models that are explainable and transparent requires a thorough understanding of AI and the techniques used to explain it. In addition, eXplainable AI may require additional data, which can be expensive to acquire and manage. Finally, the interpretation of AI results can be subjective and context-dependent, which can make it difficult to create machine learning models that are transparent and understandable to all.
That is why it will be crucial to focus on certain aspects:

  • Standardization: As eXplainable AI becomes more prominent, it is likely that standards and guidelines will be developedto assess the quality and reliability of the explanations provided by AI models. Such standards could help establish a common framework for evaluating and comparing explanation techniques.
  • Integration: eXplainable AI techniques are expected to be increasingly integrated into artificial intelligence systems., making transparency and interpretation a key part of machine decision making.
  • Personalization: Another future trend may be the personalization of the explanations provided by AI. This means that explanations could be tailored to users' individual needs and preferences, facilitating understanding and acceptance of AI decisions.
  • Evolving techniques: Finally, new techniques and methods for explaining and interpreting AI decisions are likely to emerge, improving the quality and effectiveness of the explanations provided.

The term "bias" refers to a tendency or predisposition to make choices or decisions that may be influenced by preconceived factors or prejudices, rather than based on objective, unbiased information. In other words, bias represents a distortion of thinking or behavior that can lead to incorrect judgments or results that are not representative of reality.

XCALLY and the eXplainable AI

The eXplainable AI obviously represents a new frontier of artificial intelligencethat is gaining increasing importance and attention. Creating machine learning models that are explainable and transparent can help improve user confidence in AI and identify and correct any bias or distortions in training data.

XCALLY, the omnichannel suite for contact centers, has always seen AI as a key resource for the development of technology dedicated to customer care. Therefore, eXplainable AI is and will continue to be anarea of great interest and development in the world of technology of which XCALLY is a part and in which theethical and transparent use of Artificial Intelligence will always be a priority.